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History of Insurance Industry in India

History of Indian Insurance Industry

Insurance has a long and significant history in India, with its roots tracing back to ancient times. The concept of pooling resources to provide financial protection against calamities such as fire, floods, epidemics, and famine can be found in ancient Indian writings like Manusmrithi, Dharmasastra, and Arthasastra. Over the centuries, insurance in India has evolved, drawing inspiration from other countries, particularly England. In this blog post, we will explore the evolution of the insurance industry in India, from its early beginnings to the present day.

The Advent of Life Insurance Business in India

In 1818, the Oriental Life Insurance Company was established in Calcutta, marking the advent of life insurance business in India. However, this company faced failure in 1834. In 1829, the Madras Equitable began transacting life insurance business in the Madras Presidency. The British Insurance Act was enacted in 1870, and during the late nineteenth century, the Bombay Mutual, Oriental, and Empire of India insurance companies were founded in the Bombay Residency. At that time, foreign insurance offices dominated the industry and posed significant competition to Indian companies.

The Government of India started publishing returns of insurance companies in 1914, marking a significant step towards regulating the industry. The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act of 1912 was the first statutory measure to regulate life insurance business. In 1928, the Indian Insurance Companies Act was enacted to gather statistical information about life and non-life business conducted in India. In 1938, the Insurance Act consolidated and amended the earlier legislation, providing comprehensive provisions for effective control over insurer activities to protect the interests of the insurance public.

Nationalization of Life Insurance

In 1956, an ordinance was issued to nationalize the life insurance sector, leading to the establishment of the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) in the same year. The LIC absorbed 154 Indian and 16 non-Indian insurers, as well as 75 provident societies, effectively monopolizing the life insurance sector. The LIC remained the sole provider of life insurance services in India until the late 1990s when the insurance sector was reopened to private players.

History of General Insurance in India

General insurance in India has its origins in the establishment of the Triton Insurance Company Ltd. in 1850 by the British in Calcutta. In 1907, the Indian Mercantile Insurance Ltd. was set up, becoming the first company to transact all classes of general insurance business. The General Insurance Council was formed in 1957 as a wing of the Insurance Association of India to ensure fair conduct and sound business practices.

The Insurance Act was amended in 1968 to regulate investments and set minimum solvency margins. In 1972, the General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act was passed, leading to the nationalization of general insurance business from January 1, 1973. The Act amalgamated 107 insurers into four companies: National Insurance Company Ltd., New India Assurance Company Ltd., Oriental Insurance Company Ltd., and United India Insurance Company Ltd. The General Insurance Corporation of India was incorporated in 1971 and commenced business in 1973.

Reforms and Opening of the Insurance Sector

In the early 1990s, the process of re-opening the insurance sector began with the formation of a committee chaired by RN Malhotra, the former Governor of RBI. The committee proposed recommendations for reforms, including allowing private players to enter the insurance industry. In April 2000, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) was established as an autonomous body to regulate and develop the insurance industry.

The IRDAI opened up the insurance market in August 2000, inviting applications for registrations. Foreign companies were permitted to have ownership of up to 26% in Indian insurance companies. Since then, the IRDA has framed various regulations to ensure fair practices and protect policyholders’ interests. In December 2000, the subsidiaries of the General Insurance Corporation of India were restructured as independent companies, and GIC was converted into a national re-insurer. In July 2002, a bill was passed to de-link the four subsidiaries from GIC.

Today, India has a vibrant insurance sector with 34 general insurance companies, including the ECGC and Agriculture Insurance Corporation of India, and 24 life insurance companies. The insurance industry, along with banking services, contributes around 7% to the country’s GDP and plays a vital role in economic development by providing long-term funds for infrastructure development and strengthening the country’s risk-taking ability.

Overcoming Challenges and Embracing Opportunities

While the insurance industry in India has witnessed significant growth and transformation, it has also faced its fair share of challenges. Let’s explore some of the hurdles that the industry has encountered and the opportunities that lie ahead.

Lack of Awareness and Penetration

One of the major challenges faced by the insurance industry in India is the lack of awareness and low penetration levels, especially in rural areas. Many individuals and businesses remain unaware of the importance and benefits of insurance, which hinders the industry’s growth potential. However, this challenge also presents an opportunity for insurance companies and insurtech platforms like Bharatsure to educate and create awareness about insurance products and their relevance in safeguarding against risks.

By leveraging technology, conducting outreach programs, and collaborating with various stakeholders, the insurance industry can enhance awareness and penetration levels. Insurtech platforms like Bharatsure play a crucial role in bridging the gap by offering user-friendly interfaces, simplified policies, and affordable coverage options.

Technological Disruption and the Rise of Insurtech

Technology has disrupted various industries, and insurance is no exception. The rise of insurtech has transformed the way insurance products are developed, distributed, and consumed. Insurtech companies leverage cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, blockchain, and data analytics to enhance customer experience, improve underwriting processes, and offer personalized solutions.

However, this disruption also poses challenges for traditional insurance companies. They must adapt to the changing landscape and embrace technological advancements to stay relevant in the market. By partnering with insurtech platforms or developing their own digital capabilities, established insurance companies can leverage technology to streamline operations, improve efficiency, and deliver innovative products and services to customers.

Collaborative Opportunities

The challenges faced by the insurance industry also present collaborative opportunities. Insurtech platforms like Bharatsure can collaborate with traditional insurance companies to combine their expertise, resources, and customer reach. Such collaborations can result in innovative product offerings, expanded market presence, and enhanced customer satisfaction.

Additionally, partnerships between insurtech platforms and other sectors, such as e-commerce, travel, and finance, open doors for embedded insurance solutions. By integrating insurance seamlessly into existing products and services, businesses can provide comprehensive solutions that cater to the evolving needs of their customers.

Looking Ahead: The Future of the Insurance Industry in India

As we look ahead, the future of the insurance industry in India appears promising. With technological advancements, increasing digital adoption, and evolving customer expectations, the industry is poised for significant growth and transformation.

Insurtech platforms like Bharatsure will continue to play a vital role in shaping the industry’s future. By leveraging technology, data-driven insights, and customer-centric approaches, they will drive innovation, simplify processes, and enhance customer experience. These platforms will also contribute to expanding insurance awareness, improving penetration levels, and making insurance more accessible to a wider population.

Furthermore, as the Indian economy grows and businesses diversify, the demand for specialized insurance products and services will rise. Insurance companies, both traditional and insurtech, will need to be agile, adaptable, and responsive to evolving market needs. By embracing collaboration, exploring new distribution channels, and leveraging emerging technologies, insurance companies can cater to the dynamic demands of the Indian market.


The insurance industry in India has come a long way, overcoming challenges and embracing opportunities. With the advent of insurtech platforms like Bharatsure and a growing focus on customer-centricity and technology-driven solutions, the industry is poised for a remarkable future. By leveraging the power of innovation and collaboration, the insurance industry will continue to evolve, providing individuals and businesses with the financial security and peace of mind they deserve.

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